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Saturday, April 28, 2018

91. HARMONIC AND MELODIC ORGANIZATION BASED ON A 2 OR 3 LEVEL RHYTHMIC/MORPHOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF MELODIC THEMES PROGRESSION , INHERITED FROM POETRY MEASURE ORGANIZATION.

HARMONIC AND MELODIC ORGANIZATION BASED ON A 2 OR 3 LEVEL RHYTHMIC/MORPHOLOGICAL  ORGANIZATION OF MELODIC THEMES PROGRESSION, INHERITED FROM POETRY MEASURE ORGANIZATION.

In older times it was not the chord-progression the main organization invariant of a song or improvisation in folk music, but the melodic themes progression as morphological or 2nd level rhythmic structure.

Very often Celtic but also in Greek folk music, we notice an at least 2 levels rhythmic organization structure inherited from the poetry measure of the lyrics. So poetic measure, rhythmic measure, melodic organization and harmonic organization are highly correlated, with a common base the human emotions.

E.g. in Greek 15-syllables poetry (meaning 4*4=16 syllables but the last is a pause) measure structure, we have 4 measures of 4 parts, in which the first 3 are of the same rhythmic structure while the 4th is different E.g. (0101), (0101), (0101) (1011). The 2nd organization level rhythmic measure is the  ||(0101), (0101), (0101) (1011)||

Most often in Celtic music the rhythmic pattern inside the measures is of the type (1100) in other words two n=beats with note two beats silence etc. Si the previous pattern would be
 ||(1100), (1100), (1100) (1110)||

Each melodic theme, e.g. the one with beat-structure (1100) , is usually an a theme with waves or ripples, starting and ending at an interval of octave (12 semitones) or 5th (7 semitones) or the same note! that are the best harmonic intervals  (see about simplicial sub-melody structure see also post 86 chromatic music techniques) .  From this point of view they may follow the underlying chords and actually navigate though the notes of the chord. That is they may be considered chord-generated melodic themes, and although the chord may be remain the same at different times the melodic themes may have completely different character, like ascending versus descending, waving with this way versus waving with anther way.

Usually the pattern of the melody e.g. in Celtic folk music is with underlying chords two successive in the wheel by 4ths, that is e.g. D7->G . E.g. there is an ascending excitation movement to the next octave, maybe also one more fifth higher (may be called upwards melodic movement) , during the D7, while there is descending waving return to G (maybe called downwards melodic movement) , which goes quite low so that finally the melody closes with waving ascending return to D from where it started. 

Interval dilation , or Interval acceleration, deceleration
For the theme to be nice it include melodic density contraction or expansion, (in other words dilation) , or accelration/decelartion as far as intevals is concerned. In other words it may start slowly with intervals of 2nd, the accelerate to intervals of 3rd or 4th/5ths and decelerate at the end to intervals of 2nd again. Or othe combination. It may start fast and decelerate, or it may start slow (always as far as pitches and intervals is concerned not time) and close by accelerating to intervals of 3rds or 4ths.


Waving larger than start-end moving of  the melodic theme.
In this technique (e.g. reels of Irish music) the starting ending notes of the melodic theme is an interval of 2nd (e.g. the same note or one or two semitones away), but the intermediate waving steps are intervals of 3rd or 4ths/5ths! This is somehow the opposite of what usually oriental music melodies are doing!


The above  in their turn create the correlation in the melodic themes pattern, so that a melodic theme is repeated 3 times while the 4th time is different and resolves. E.g. in the first two melodic theme by 4ths fifts or even octave intervals may be used as if accelerating , while in the last two measure it contracts or decelerates and might use melodic themes intervals of 3rds or 2nds and also inverted  melodic themes.
Which again in its turn create a correlation in the harmonic structure or chord-progression structure, so that e.g. we may have 
(ii, I, ii,I) , (ii, I, ii,I) , (IV, I, IV,I) , (V, I, V, I). 
We classical music the higher order rhythmic structure is usually called musical morphology, and it is often inherited by poetry morphology , The poetic tern sonnet and the musical term sonata are nor for no reason similar words.

Similarly the poetry measure can be based on 3 instead of 4, e.g. 11-syllable poetry (meaning 3*4=12 syllables but the last is a pause) also very common in folk Greek poetry , which leads to 9/8,  6/8 measures .

E.g.
 (110), (3 beats )
(110), (3 beats)
(110) (3 beats)
 (111). (3 beats different )

Total of 12 beats corresponding to the 11-syllables poetry (the last has no lyrics)
The 2nd organization level rhythmic measure is the  ||(011), (011), (011) (110)||

Or for example it could be

 (1100), (1100), (1100)   (3 measures)
 (1100), (1100), (1100) (3 measures)
 (1100), (1100), (1100) (3 measures)
  (0011) (0011)  (1101) (3 measures different now)

Total of 12 measures, corresponding to 11-measures poetry (the last has no lyrics)

Waltzes  are examples of such measures that are dividable by 3 .






Tuesday, April 24, 2018

90. ISOMORPHIC LAYOUTS OF NOTES AND GUITAR TUNING BY ALTERNATING 3RDS. THE AMAZING, OPTIMAL DIATONIC GUITAR OR HARMONICA-GUITAR OF 6-STRINGS OR 12-STRINGS , TUNING.

THE AMAZING,  OPTIMAL    DIATONIC GUITAR OR HARMONICA-GUITAR OF  6-STRING OR 12-STRING , TUNING.

ABOUT  ISOMPORPHIC 2-DIMENSIONAL LAYOUTS FOR KEYBARDS  STRING INSTRUMENTS  TUNINGS AND SOFTWARE PADS  FOR ARRANGING  THE MUSICAL NOTESAND THEIR IPORTANCE IN IMPROVISING SEE POST 310.

THE TERM ISOMORPHIC REFERS TO THE CHORD-SHAPES THAT REMAIN THE SAME (ARE ISOMORPHIC) WHEN CHANGING THE ROOT NOTE AS LONG AS THE TYPE OF THE CHORD REMAINS THE SAME.

Isomorphic layouts: What they are and why they are awesome for your music




THE MAIN IDEA OF THIS TUNING OF THE 6-STRING GUITAR IS  TO APPLY THE DIATONIC TUNING OF AN HARP ON EVEN OR ODD STRINGS OR AN HARMONICA, VERTICALLY AMONG THE STRINGS, WHILE LETTING THE FRETBOARD ENHANCE IT CHROMATICALLY IN THE USUAL WAY.

 Here is a diatonic rather than chromatic version of the isomorphic layout based on alternating major-minor 3rds:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwiF_ATumKM

Normally a guitar with the standard tuning is a chromatic instrument e.g.  compared to diatonic wind instruments like a recorder or a diatonic tuned Celtic harp.  But there is a natural harmonic diatonic tuning of the guitar.

An  optimal but unknown tuning for the 6-string guitar when chord-playing is the main target and not so much solo playing is by alternating minor and major 3rds. In semitones for the 6 strings   4-3-4-3-4 or 3-4-3-4-3
E.g. Bb2- D3-F3-A3-C4-E4 ( default scale Bb) or F2-A2-C3-E3-G3-B3 (default scale F major) or A2-C3-E4-G4-B4-D4 (default scale C major)  or  G2-B2-D3-F#3-A3-C4 (default scale G major) or B2-D3-F#4-A4-C#4-E4 (default scale D major)  or  G2-Bb2-D3-F3-A3-C4 (default scale Bb major)  
Notice also the tuning of alternate minor and major thirds seem to occur for a 5-string Mexican instrument the Jarana huasteca https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jarana_huasteca)

As notes ,

The 1st string , counting from lower to higher defines the Aeolian 6th mode, the 2nd string the Ionian 1st mode, the 3rd string the Phrygian 3rd mode , the 4th string the Myxolydian 5th mode , the 5th string the Locrian 7nth mode, and the 6th string the Dorian 2nd mode.

As triad-chords, 

1) the first 3 strings , starting from the lower to the higher (e.g. in the last tuning, the G2-Bb2-D3) create the Aeolian mode of the default diatonicscale (here Bb). 

2) The next 3 strings (e.g. in the last tuning, the Bb2-D3-F3 ) create the Ionian mode of the default diatonic scale (here Bb). 

3) The next 3 strings (e.g. in the last tuning, the D3-F3-A3 ) create the Prygian  mode of the default diatonic scale (here Bb). 

4) Finally the last 3 strings (e.g. in the last tuning, the F3-A3-C4 ) create the Myxolydian  mode of the default diatonic scale (here Bb). 




THIS MAY BE CALLED THE HARMONIC TUNING OF THE GUITAR AS IT IS BASED ON THE HARMONIC 2-OCTAVES 7-NOTES SCALE (see also post 79)
The latter is the most natural open tuning. There the same shape for major and minor chords and only 3 of them and in only one or frets compared to the 6 in the standard tuning guitar. If we want also dominant and major 7nth chords we use again only 2 frets. The same with the aug chords Only the dim7 chords require 3 frets. Because of the symmetry of the tuning among the strings, the relations of relative chords and also chords in the wheel of 4ths is immediate to grasp also geometrically. Of course when we say shape of chords as it is standard in jazz, we do not play all 6-strings (as in strumming) but only 3 or 4 strings.

The easiness with which one can improvise melodies within a diatonic scale (all notes within 3  frets and in a very symmetric zig-zag pattern) together with 3-notes chords of the scale (gain all chord patterns within 3-frets) is unsurpassed.
At the same time , the easiness with which one can make diatonic scale modulations, chromatic (1 semitone apart) or by changing a minor to a major chord and vice versa and continuing in a relevant diatonic scale, is unsurpassed again! 

The main advantages are

1) Greater number of major or minor triads per number of frets, thus easier chord playing

2) Less number of chord-shapes, thus easier guitar to learn

3) The shapes of chords require less number of frets 

4)  1st inversion chords require only 1 or 2 frets, thus have easier shapes and are easier to play

5) In the melodies the notes are closer in total thus easier  to find by the fingers

6) The odd number of strings or the even number of strings are in intervals of 5 (7 semitones) thus as in the tuning of Cello, Octave mandolin , Viola, Violin , mandolin , Irish bouzouki, mandocello etc therefore any  one trained to play solos in the previous instruments can keep his knowledge and play the same solos in such an harmonic tuned guitar (on odds or even strings).
Also the isokratic technique  in the 3-courses instruments tuned so as to contain a 5th like bouzouki, boulgari, tampour , saz  where two string a 5th apart accompany the melody on another string still applies in the harmonic guitar as all odd and even number strings are tuned a 5th apart. Nevertheless compared to the previous instruments (violon , mandolin etc) in the harmonic guitar the 3-notes or 4-notes major or minor chords , or diminished and augmented chords are played radically easier with one or two rarely 3 frets and is  the densest such placement on the fretboard among all tunings of the guitar . At the same time any guitar  jazz player one trained to play 3-notes chords (triads) in the standard guitar and especially on the 4 highest strings can keeps his knowledge and with slight modifications apply it to the harmonically tuned guitar. Furthermore any one playing the panduri (a russian or georgian folk 3-courses instrument coming from ancient Geek panduris, which is tuned in open major or minor 3-notes chord) will pass his knowledge to this harmonic tuned guitar in the upper 3 or middle 3 and lower 3 strings! 


This harmonic tuning by alternating minor-major 3rds, allows, for all  4-notes chords of e.g. the D major scale in   the 3rd octave (c3,d3,e3,f3,g3,a3,b3), Cmaj7->Em7->G7->Bm6->Dm7->Fmaj7->Am7 in 1st normal position across the fretboard, something not possible with the standard tuning of the guitar. In the standard guitar it is possible only by 2nd or 3rd inversion, or by shifting to the 4th octave or 2nd octave. Therefore there are important very natural voicing of the 4-notes chords of the 3rd  octave that we miss with the standard tuning and in the harmonically tuned guitar, it is in a single octave!

THERE ARE 4 VERY SYMMETRIC WAYS THAT THE CHORDS IN A WHEEL BY 4THS CAN BE REPRESENTED AND PLAYED IN THE FRETBOARD WITH THIS  HARMONIC TUNING. 

WE ENLARGE IN THE NEXT WITH MAPS OF THE CHORDS AND THEIR SHAPES IN THE THREE WHEELS, THE ONE BY 4THS, THE ONE BY 3RDS AND THE CHROMATIC.


In post 67 are also described harmonically  tuned 4-course (Greek 4-courses bouzouki, ukulele, mando-lele etc)  or 3-courses (Balalaika, Greek 3-course Bouzouki) instruments that are easier to play but have the same remarkable advantages due to the harmonic tuning.

E.g. for 4-course , the tuning D3D4-F3F4-A4A4-C4C4 abd for 3-courses the F3F4-A4A4-C4C4 or 

G3G4-Bb4Bb4-D4D4. 

THE DIATONIC-GUITAR OR HARMONICA-GUITAR  HAS A DIRECT ADVANTAGE OF APPLYING THE CLASSICAL GROUP OF VARIATIONS OF MELODIC THEMES AS IN POST 279 (TONAL TRANSLATIONS BY 3RDS AND 5THS OR 4THS IN AT LEAST 2/3 OF THE CASES AND CHROMATICALL IN AT MOST 1/3 OF THE CASES). THE MELODIC THEME SUCH TONAL  TRANSLATION BY 3RDS OR 5THS/4THS IS SIMPLY SHIFTING THE MELODIC THEME FROM ONE STRING ON THE SAME FRET  VERTICALLY TO  THE ADJACENT STRING ( A 3RD) OR NEXT TO ADJACENT STRING (5TH OR 4TH).



THERE ARE 3 MAIN WAYS THAT TWO TRIAD-CHORDS HAVE HARMONIC RELATION ON THE FRETBOARD OF A  6-STRING SUCH GUITAR

1) By inversting the interval of 5th that each fret has with the  samE fret but two strings higher

2) By and interval of 4th that each fret has 2 frets lower and 2 strings higher (as created by the same interval of 5th as before but one tone lower onthe higher string)

3) By an interval of 4th as created on two succcesive strings that have always an intervalof 3rd and an additional interval of 2nd twoards higher.

Tuesday, April 10, 2018

89. SIMPLE SYMMETRIC PATTERNS OF PENTATONIC SCALES ON 4-STRING INSTRUMENTS FOR FAST TRILL SOLOING

The pentatonic scale has entirely simple symmetric patterns-shapes on 4-string and 3-string instruments, like 3-string Greek lyra, 4-double strings mandolin, 4-strings ukulele, 3 or 4-double strings Greek bouzouki. And this can be taken in full advantage for fast "dancing" soloing.

The Egyptian scale the Mongolian and the minor Pentatonic are different cyclic permutations or modes of the same scale.

Here is a video with the penantonic scale called "tik" in the Pontian 3-string Lyra.


For 4-string instruments like Ukulele or Greek Bouzouki (or 4 higher strings of Guitar)
the pattern of the pentatonic scale is symmetric identical  on the 2-strings and then symmetric identical on the other two strings and it is one of the next variations 

dot-empty-empty-dot
dot-empty-empty-dot
dot-empty-dot         
dot-empty-dot

OR

           dot-empty-dot
           dot-empty-dot
dot-empty-empty-dot
dot-empty-empty-dot

          

OR 

   dot- empty-  empty-dot        
    empty -dot-    empty-dot
    dot-     empty-dot-  empty          
    dot-     empty-dot- empty 



Based on this extreme symmetry, the soloing can be very fast by hammering , pull-ups and , taping.

In addition by adding semitones at two of the ends we get diatonic scales, on which we may also solo in fast way.

The patterns for Mandolin, Violin, and in general instruments that two or more strings have interval distance of pure 5th , that is 7 semitones, are even simpler and more symmetric. If all strings have distance 4th or all have distance a pure fifth, then the pattern is symmetric on all 4-strings and not two by two. 


Here is fast soloing on the Greek Pontian lyra on the scale "tik" pentatonic (tuning Β3, Ε4, Α4) 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldy189LmLDs

Because the  hammering and pull-ups is really fast but  also is for at most 3 notes per string, it may be considered an horizontal harping or trill along a single string, where the trill is not on the same note but on notes at in interval of 2 or 3 semitones. Thus the whole of the soloing is like harping vertically among the strings and trilling horizontally across a string within at most 3-4 frets. This is done mainly close to the upper bridge, so as to use also the open strings.


Here is an example of this type of soloing with mandolin and not Lyra. (Here it may not be within Pentatonic scale only)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CRZmloPOnXk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_NRdhL-j6U



In older centuries music (that still is practiced as traditional folk music) that the concept of harmony and chords had not been developed yet, the accompanying of melodies was not with chords but with a secondary counter-melody. E.g. if a melody was in a diatonic scale then a secondary counter-melody in the pentatonic sub-scale of the diatonic was accompanying, and actually, intervals of notes that were played (trilled) sequentially in time (like 3rds-6ths  and 4ths or 5ths) were playing the role of chords!
ACCOMPANYING A MELODY WITH INTERVALS INSTEAD OF WITH CHORDS.
Another simple idea is that the countermelody (especially when it is on a simpler scale e.g. a pentatonic ) can be used to accompany the melody not with chords but with intervals from the simpler scale of the countermelody. E.g. we may utilize intervals by 3rds as in the role of minor  diminished or augmented chords and the intervals of 4th or 5th as major or power chords